Web Server Products Catalog
In most cases, the choice of Web server is something that is pretty standard. Most Web hosts provide Linux hosting with Apache as the configured Web server. In most cases, the choice is automatic because it is the Web server that comes with virtually every distribution of Linux and is turned on, almost universally, by default. Sometimes, however, circumstances such as scaling, business, or corporate requirements prevent the use of open source Web servers. For example, a corporation may have a strategic business alliance with Microsoft and be locked in to using Internet Information Services (IIS), the Microsoft Web server product. In these cases, the minimum requirement of PHP 4.3 and MySQL 4.1.2 still exists, but the means for configuring the Web server might be slightly different. Apache is an open source Web server that comes bundled with most Linux distributions. It is, by far, the most commonly used Web server on the Internet, and WordPress was designed perfectly for it. There is...
This chapter assumes that you already have the WordPress software installed and running correctly on your Web server, and that your Web server meets the minimum requirements to run WordPress (see Chapter 6). If you are planning to run just a few of your own sites with the WordPress network feature, then your current hosting situation is probably well suited (see Chapter 6 for information on Web hosting services). However, if your plans are to host a large network with hundreds of blogs and multiple users, you should consider contacting your host and increasing your bandwidth, as well as the disk space limitations on your account. In addition to the necessary security measures, time, and administrative tasks that go into running a community of blogs, you've got a few things to worry about. Creating a community will increase the resource use, bandwidth, and disk space on your Web server. In many cases, if you go over your allotted limits given to you by your Web host, you will incur...
If you are running the Windows operating system (no matter the version), you need to download several applications to successfully run WordPress on your computer That includes a web server application, the MySQL database, and the WordPress software. If you want to develop plug-ins, you also need the PHP scripting language.
First, it is important to look at the features and requirements of each potential Web host before making the decision to host your blog with them. The most generic requirements for WordPress at the time of writing, is PHP 4.3 and MySQL 4.1. Regardless of which operating system is used, or which Web server is provided (most hosts are of some Linux variety and use Apache), all Web hosts must provide PHP 4.3 or MySQL 4.1. The better offerings provide PHP 5.2+ and MySQL 5+. Besides these requirements, it is also important to consider other factors that can play into your Web-hosting decision, such as
Before proceeding with the final steps in enabling the WordPress network feature, you need to get a few items in order on your Web server. You also need to make a decision about how the multiple blogs within your network will be handled. These configurations need to be in place in order to run the WordPress Network successfully.If you can perform the configurations in this section yourself (and if you have access to the Apache configuration files), this section is for you. If you don't know how, are uncomfortable with adjusting these settings, or don't have access to change the configurations in your Web server software, you'll need to ask your hosting provider for help or hire a consultant to perform the configurations for you. If you want to use a subdomain for each blog in your WordPress Network, you must add a wildcard record to your DNS records. You need to add a hostname record pointing at your Web server in the DNS configuration tool available in your Web server administration...
Previous chapters covered functionality that's common between WordPress.com and WordPress software. Starting with this chapter, we're going to help you make the most of WordPress entirely outside of the cozy environment of WordPress.com. This chapter covers the two ways of setting up WordPress on your own through your Internet service provider (ISP) or a web hosting company (the choice for most people), and on your own computer. Chances are pretty good that you don't want, or need, to have the headache of operating your own web server, connected to the Internet and available 24 hours a day, seven days a week. You just want some space on the web to blog when the spirit moves you. Despite the shorthand term self-hosted WordPress, the vast majority of WordPress.org software users run their blogs on someone else's server. Although this book is not about being your own web host, the upcoming section, Hosting WordPress Yourself, is about running WordPress on your own computer. With a 24 7...
Improving WordPress scalability through the web server layer involves PHP execution optimization and web server configuration changes. In both cases, you'll need administrator level access to the web server configuration files. To get APC set up you will need full access permissions on your server. Once APC is set up it caches the compiled PHP files that make up the WordPress Core. The biggest downside is that you have to restart the server every time you change a PHP page, specifically the template files in this case. You can find more information about APC at http us3 .php.net manual en book.apc.php. Again, the ability to enable APC and start stop the web server depends on you having sufficient administrator privilieges. Caching can be further augmented by using memcache and memcached, also requiring server administration level of implementation. Memcache uses your server's RAM to cache frequently used objects. RAM is significantly faster than file-based operations, and because...
Finding a host for your WordPress blog is not hard. Because there are so many Web hosts available (it is a thoroughly saturated industry), there are a lot of options. Many years ago, I partnered with Blog Marketing author Jeremy Wright to provide Web hosting at a discount. Many individuals and companies still do this, as the barrier to entry for low-end Web hosting is very low. This is not to say that Web hosting is easy to provide reliably. Competent hosts will not try to put too many hosting accounts on a single server, for example. Competent Web hosts will also provide backups, 24-hour support, monitoring, security patching and, of course, PHP 5. As someone who has been in the industry of providing WordPress solutions to clients, both businesses and individuals, for years, I am frequently asked for recommendations of WordPress hosting providers. Of course, there are many options depending on need.
WordPress.com (Figure 1.1) hosts WordPress blogs for free. Hosting your blog on WordPress.com frees you from having to get your own hosting space and making sure that your Web server has the software that WordPress needs to run. It also means that your blog is ready for traffic spikes associated with popular posts. The team behind WordPress.com takes care of all the back-end stuff (patching servers, upgrading software, and the like) and leaves the blogging to you. Your other option is downloading the WordPress code from WordPress.org (Figure 1.2) and installing it yourself. Because you're hosting the blog yourself, you decide what plug-ins you'll use, and you have complete control of all the files. What's more, pointing a domain to your installation won't cost you anything extra (above and beyond your Web-hosting bill and registration fees, that is). Hosting your own installation of WordPress won't be much of a challenge if you've maintained a Web site before. If you're new to Web...
Part III explores the single-user version of the WordPress software available at WordPress.org. You install this software on your own hosted Web server, so I give you valuable information about domain registration, Web hosting providers, and a few of the basic tools (such as FTP) that you need to install to set up a WordPress blog. I also familiarize you with the Administration panel, where you personalize your blog and explore many of the settings that you need to manage and maintain your WordPress-powered blog.
WordPress is one of the simplest open source blog platforms to install. It has long bragged about its famous five-minute install. In fact, installing WordPress can take much less than five minutes. The most time-consuming part is the creation of a database for WordPress to use. This process can be near instantaneous if you're a power user who can script the database creation, or a minute or two if a Web host control panel login is required. Most Web servers are already set up out of the box to handle WordPress. If you have PHP 4.3 or better and MySQL 4.1.2 or better, then you are set to go. You can skip ahead to the part of this chapter that deals directly with handling the installation of WordPress. If you are starting from scratch with your own server that doesn't have the required PHP scripting language and MySQL database build, or if you have to install the Apache or other Web server, then read on.
If Drupal tells you that it was unable to create the files directory, the most likely problem is that the web server doesn't have permission to write to the files directory. For Linux servers, you can solve this problem by changing the group ownership of the folder to the same user that runs the web server, often apache or www. Public downloading This means that the job of serving uploaded files to the browser falls on the underlying web server, which will serve them directly. Web servers are carefully optimized to be able to serve static resources like files in a very efficient way. This will always be the fastest method for offering downloads. The ramification is that the files must reside in a directory that is visible from the Web. Putting files in a Web-visible Private downloading For the private downloading method to be effective, the files must reside in a directory that is not visible from the Web. The directory needs to be readable and writable by scripts, however, as PHP...
A number of web hosts offer one-click installation of WordPress via the control panel, usually using the Fantastico application installer. In actuality, it really takes about half a dozen clicks, so I'll walk you through it. (If your host doesn't offer Fantastico or another one-click option, you'll need to see the Installation using the Web Interface section of this chapter.)
Download the installation package from wordpress.org and upload the files to your web host using FTP client software. Simply place the files where you want your WordPress site to be located that is, if you want the site to be located at mysite.com, upload the files to your web root folder. If you want the site to be located at mysite.com blog, create a folder called blog and upload the WordPress files to that folder instead. Note While localhost is the most common setting for the database host, your web host might use something different-even if the host was not included in the database settings you were given. GoDaddy and Dreamhost, for example, do not use localhost. Check your web host's documentation.
Some Web hosts offer installers that will get your WordPress install up and running with just a click from within the Web host admin interface. The most popular one is probably Fantastico. At first, this sounds like a really good idea, since you won't have to fiddle with config files or anything it'll just slap the blog up there and you can get started.
WordPress offers two main methods to install a plugin. One is WordPress' own baked-in Plugin Installer (results may vary) and the other is the manual method using SFTP or FTP. WordPress's automatic install makes life significantly easier, depending on your webhosting provider, however it might not be available for your hosting package. If this is the case, and your site doesn't support automatic install, you can still manually install plugins using FTP. Honestly, if your host doesn't support automatic installation, you should seriously consider changing web hosts. The ability to automatically install WordPress updates, plugin updates, and new plugins is one of the reasons WordPress is great the process is hard enough without letting things become outdated.
If you're like me, your dislike of clutter goes as far as your Web hosting environment. In other words, the mere thought of all those WordPress files and folders in the root of your domain makes you nauseous. This may not be such an issue for others, although it will be easier to manage your various Web endeavors if you put the WordPress install in its own folder. Say you want to add other Web software installs you may have a hard time finding the files you need if they're all mixed in together (although it helps that everything WordPress at this level is named wp-something). It just gets messy if you want to do anything other than just use WordPress.
Most important, if you want to use the code samples and examples in this book, you'll need a WordPress blog in which to install them. Chapter 1 covers some basic WordPress hosting options as well as the simple mechanics of downloading the components, and installing WordPress on a desktop or test machine for debugging and closer inspection.
Next, install WordPress on your new server. Any decent Web host will have alternate URLs to access your content on the server online, without actually having to have your domain pointing to Finally, you're ready to import the exported file from your old server. Just go to Tools and go through the import wizard (see Figure 1-4), taking care that your exported file from the old server is up to date. Import it, let the script chew through the content, and then you're all done Verify that everything is working properly, give yourself a pat on the back, and then redirect your domain to your new server. You may have to edit your new blog's settings, since it may have taken URLs from the Web host's internal system, so change them to correspond with your blog's domain name. While waiting for the domain to be pointed to your new server the blog will break of course, but then again your old one is still working. You may want to close comments on it, though, since those will be lost when the...
After launching the Open Connection, located in the upper-right-hand side of the Applications window, the following screenshot will ask for the specifics on connecting to your website. This information can all be usually found in your web host's control panel or the initial setup e-mail you received when you created your hosting account. Connection Type FTP, SFTP FTP-SSL. Which connection you should use depends on what your web-hosting provider supports. Almost all web hosts offer the less secure FTP protocol, but if you can, I would suggest connecting with SFTP (Secure FTP).
WordPress software files to be uploaded to your Web server. WordPress software files to be uploaded to your Web server. Using your FTP client, connect to your Web server, and upload all these files to your hosting account, into the root directory. and ask, What is my root directory for my account Every hosting provider's Qjl setup is different. On my Web server, my root directory is the public_html y f folder some of my clients have a root directory in a folder called httpdocs. Upload the contents of the wordpress folder to your Web server not the folder itself. Most FTP client software lets you select all the files and drag 'n' drop them to your Web server. Other programs have you highlight the files and click a Transfer button. You can choose a different folder from the root. You aren't required to transfer the files to the root directory of your Web server. You can make the choice to run WordPress on a subdomain, or in a different folder, on your account. If you want your blog...
Now you're ready to upload the plugin files to your Web server. Connect to your Web server via FTP. Locate the plugin files you just unpacked on your hard drive. In the event that the plugin developer didn't include a readme, txt file with instructions, check the plugin developer's page for specific instructions on how to install the plugin in your WordPress blog. Specifically, the documentation in the readme.txt file and or on the plugin's Web site should address the following points What directory on your Web server you upload the plugin files to. What to do if you need to change permissions for any of the plugin files after you upload them to your Web server. (See Chapter 6 if you need information on changing file permissions.)
WordPress makes it pretty easy to enable the network feature, but it does require opening a file on your Web server called wp-config.php, and making a small alteration. Follow these steps to get the process started 1. Download the file called wp-config.php from the WordPress installation on your Web server. It's easiest to use an FTP program to download a copy of this file from your Web server to your computer. Chapter 6 covers the information you need about using FTP. 5. Upload the new wp-config.php to your Web server in your WordPress installation directory.
On that original web server, Tim maintained a What's New newsletter that included news about developments in the technology of the Web. He also wrote about, and linked to, new sites as they came online. Naturally, Tim's page included a brief description of these new places on the Web, and often Tim added his opinion of them. This style of web page periodic, subject-specific, linking to interesting sites with commentary is the very essence of the first weblogs.
Before you put away the FTP program, you need to check your permissions on certain files and directories. By default, files you upload to your server and directories you create on it are owned by you, or rather your account on the server. This is correct and as you might expect. However, the web server, Apache, usually runs as a different user, often apache, httpd, or nobody. This means that software running under Apache in this case, WordPress doesn't normally have permissions to modify or delete files, nor to create new ones. To fix this, you need to change the permissions of some of the WordPress files. You will most likely need to give full access to those files. You will also need to give write access to a couple of folders, so that WordPress can create new files.
You are now ready to transfer the files onto your server. Using your FTP software, upload all the WordPress files to you web server, storing them in the folder you decided on earlier, as shown in Figure 14-4. This folder will be the one your hosting company told you is the place to put your web pages or a subfolder. You may need to create the folder first, if it does not already exist. Next, on the server, rename the dothtaccess.txt file you uploaded to .htaccess a leading period (or full stop), followed by the name htaccess with no extension. This is a special file that will be used later to give some special instructions to the Apache web server software. Figure 14-4. Uploading WordPress files to the web server Figure 14-4. Uploading WordPress files to the web server
You can install the WordPress software on any computer with web server software installed, even if that computer has no permanent connection to the Internet. That means you could even use that old computer with the dialup modem (or none at all) that has been gathering dust in your basement. Why would you want to have WordPress installed on your own computer How would people read your blog if it wasn't connected to the Internet We can think of at least four good reasons to install WordPress on your system even if your real WordPress blog was hosted somewhere else, be it WordPress.com or at your own host In this section, we'll install a web server on a Windows system and get you ready for the WordPress installation. We'll also show you how to edit the WordPress configuration file manually.
WordPress is a modular web content management platform, meaning that when you install WordPress on a web server, you get a basic set of built-in (or core ) functionality that every other WordPress user gets, even users of the WordPress.com hosted software. Where the modular part comes in is that WordPress allows anyone to extend the software to do just about anything. A plug-in usually isn't a standalone program it needs WordPress to do basic tasks, hence the name. Plug-in support is only included with versions of WordPress software (meaning WordPress.org and WordPress MU), as the powers that be at WordPress.com don't allow users to install plug-ins themselves.
Your system needs to meet some basic requirements to install and run a WordPress blog. The first is hosting. You'll need an account on a server somewhere. This may be shared hosting or your own server, if you have one. WordPress does work on Windows, especially with the same web server and database setup. But because it's the most common and, frankly, the simplest to set up, I'm going to concentrate on GNU Linux-based hosting. Your hosting server needs to have support for PHP version 4.1 or later and MySQL database server version 3.23.23 or later. I recommend Apache as a web server (version 1.3.23 or later), but any web server capable of supporting PHP should work. If you have support for mod_rewrite in Apache, you'll be able to use some especially useful features ofWordPress. (See for more information about mod_rewrite.) You'll also need to be able to upload files via FTP and change permissions on your files and folders.
On the web server, navigate to the wp-content folder. Create a directory here named backup and make it writable by the web server process. This normally involves setting the properties by right-clicking the directory in the FTP window, or by providing the instruction chmod g+w backup at the shell command line. If configured to store the generated backups on the web site, this directory is where the plug-in will store them, which is why it needs to be writable by the web server. However, by default, the plug-in will expect you to download the backups to your own local machine and not use this folder. Using a backup folder is the most secure way to handle your backups and is the approach I recommend.
The goal of web server caching is to keep frequently accessed files and popular chunks of code in memory and ready to serve or execute. Within WordPress, caching has to deliver a request for a page without going through additional code or database accesses, which really boils down to short circuiting the PHP WordPress core and serving up a static representation of your page directly. Object caching, as we have already discussed, keeps certain frequently used and expensive data sets in memory. The flexibility of object caching means that when certain information does change, that does not affect the entire cache, but only the objects in cache that actually changed. However, object caching still requires the plugin to execute PHP to determine which aspects of the cache are still valid and also for WordPress to execute the PHP to pull the parts of the page together for rendering. As previously discussed, optimizing your web server's PHP environment and enabling WordPress level object...
By default the WordPress configuration file is located in the root of your web site. In the event that PHP stops functioning on your web server for any reason, you run the risk of this file being displayed in plain text, which will give up your passwords and database information.
Bill also recommends creating a new folder to allow the plug-in to cache the external RSS content. Create the folder wpcontent rssCache and set the permissions so that the web server process can create and write to files in that folder. The permissions need to be the same as the wp-content folder. See Chapter 14 for details on setting permissions.
So what's the point of this file Actually this is a very important file. The index.php file blocks anyone from viewing a directory listing of your wp-contents folder. If the index.php file didn't exist, and your web server allowed directory listings, visiting http domain.com wp-contents would display all of the files and folders in that directory. This can help hackers gain access to key files that might help exploit your web site.
Wikipedia handles it accordingly the WikiPedia article on WordPress is entirely about WordPress .org, with WordPress.com handled in a separate entry. At this writing, though, Wikipedia also exemplifies and exacerbates the confusion. The Wikipedia entry calls WordPress.org self-hosted blog software, which is ridiculous Software can't host itself it's hosted on a web server. In explaining the differences, Automattic focuses on technical aspects and they are important. WordPress.org allows you to change the code of the WordPress software itself and to upload themes and plug-ins. WordPress.org is also supported by a great community (which has offered so much information, for the better part of a decade now, that it can be hard to find a single, definitive, precise, and relatively up-to-date answer thus this book). On the negative side, WordPress.org requires you to pay a web host, to have more technical knowledge, to stop spam (usually by running one or more plug-ins), to back up your...
Consider the variables involved in viewing a web page what computer you're using, what web browser and what version, what Internet service provider you're using, what type of server the website is on, what version of WordPress you're running, what versions are being run for the dozens of software packages required to run a web server, and so on. No wonder then, that you might have a problem and virtually no one else has exactly the same one.
WordPress MU will usually display a message in the admin panel informing you when an upgrade is available and offering you the chance to upgrade immediately. This feature is very convenient and can save you a lot of time when it works. However, it does not work well on all web server setups and, when it goes wrong, it can cause a lot of problems.
Once WordPress is handed a URL to parse by the web server, it goes to work disassembling the tokens in that URL and converting them into parameters for a database query. Here's a bit more detail on what happens when manipulating your own WP_Query. Rather than using the simpler have_ posts () and the_ post () calls that we saw in the basic Loop, this custom loop calls the methods of the newly created WP_Query object myPosts. The explicit invocation shown here and the default have_ posts () call are functionally equivalent have_ posts () for example is merely calling wp_query- have_ posts () using the global query variable for the default query, that is, the one generated from parsing the URL handed to WordPress by the web server.
Your image uploads to your Web server. The Crop Header page appears, where you can crop the image and adjust which portion of the header image you would like displayed (see Figure 13-3). The background value indicates an image called header-image.jpg. In order for it to display on your site, you need to create the image and upload it to your Web server under images directory.
When you have the theme uploaded to your Web server, you can activate it by logging in to your WordPress Dashboard and following these simple steps The Manage Themes page opens, listing all the themes currently installed in your themes directory. The active theme is shown in the Current Theme section at the top of the page. All available themes you may have uploaded to your Web server are shown in the Available Themes section (see Figure 11-4). In Chapter 5, I cover how to use sidebar widgets. Although that chapter pertains to the hosted WordPress.com platform, WordPress. org users can follow the same steps.One difference for WordPress.org users is the use of plugins (see Chapter 10). Some plugins have a built-in feature that enables you to include that plugin's functions in your sidebar through the use of a widget. (WordPress.com doesn't have this feature because it doesn't allow uploading and activating various plugins.)
After perusing the README text, you can decide which of the contributed field types you would like to have available. These should also go into the modules flexinode folder on the web server. In the end, an installation of Flexinode with all available field types will look like Figure 4-7.
The installer also tests to make sure that the proper files and directories are writable by the web server. For phpBB 3.0, you'll want to ensure that the cache, files, and store directories are writable, as is config.php, as you have done for phpBB 2.0. The installer will test for this, as shown in Figure 8-16, and complain accordingly if it can't write to the files.
Ideally, you'll want to install your theme on a web server installation, preferably the one where the theme is going to be used (if it's a custom design for a single client) or under the circumstances you feel your theme's users are most likely to use it (for example, if you're going to post your theme for download on WordPress' theme directory, then test your theme on an installation of WordPress on a shared hosting environment that most people use).
The maximum size of the files that you will be able to upload is controlled by the PHP settings post_max_size and upload_max_filesize. You can adjust these values by explicitly setting them in your settings.php file, assuming your web server allows for this. Find the section of that file titled PHP Settings and add the following lines, adjusting the file size to suit your needs
Several WordPress plug-ins can help you weather a sudden influx of traffic without having to pony up the money for a beefier Web-hosting contract. I'm a fan of WP Super Cache, myself (http wordpress.org extend plugins wp-super-cache ). Caching works on the simple concept that most of the content on your blog doesn't change much, so why create the pages from scratch every time someone visits Instead, you can keep a premade copy on hand and serve that up to your visitors. This method lessens the impact on the database server, which doesn't need to provide all that information for every page, and it lessens the load on the Web server, which can serve up only static files that don't require processing.
The file that is generated and automatically downloaded is a compressed file containing a single .sql file of MySQL instructions. The size of the .sql file depends on the amount of information stored on your blog. Once you have a few hundred blog posts and a few thousand comments, the download file can become quite large. Thankfully, because it is text, it compresses to a manageable size for downloading, storing on your web server, or possibly being e-mailed to you. Given that there are e-mail providers giving away 2GB of storage space for free these days, you could even set up an account purely to receive and store your blog backups.
Spam comes in many forms and even trackbacks aren't immune. Luckily, the Simple Trackback Validation plugin, found at http wordpress.org extend plugins simple-trackback-validation , can protect even this aspect of your community portal from spam. This plugin takes two actions to prevent trackback spam. It first checks to see if the IP address of the trackback sender is identical to the IP address of the web server to which the trackback URL refers. After that, it then checks the web address used in the trackback and ensures that the page actually contains a link to your blog.
Earlier in this chapter, I covered how to find and install a new theme on your WordPress blog by downloading them from the WordPress Free Themes Directory, uploading them to your Web server via FTP and activating the theme within your WordPress Dashboard. The WordPress platform does give you a much easier way to browse the Free Themes Directory to find, preview, and install themes on your site without ever leaving the comfort of the WordPress Dashboard. The following steps show you how to do it
In practice, your site does not really change that often. You are probably not running the next Twitter through a WordPress installation (though you can build a reasonable facsimile with the p2 theme) and the content does not change every 30 seconds. Leveraging the ideal situation in which your content is viewed significantly more frequently than it's updated, and allowing for minor windows of inconsistent updates, let's look at caching layers from the web server back to the MySQL installation.
If you want to make modifications to your theme files, you can edit them in WordPress's Theme Editor, as long as the theme files are writable by the web server process (see the Setting File Upload Options section in Chapter 14). To activate the Theme Editor, go to the Presentation administration page and click the Theme Editor tab. Make sure that the theme you want to edit (c3ro mask 2 in this example) is selected in the drop-down list.
The URI of this directory setting is the web-visible URI the server will expose this folder as. WordPress sometimes gets this wrong. The URI it guesses works, but not all the time, particularly in the administration pages, so you cannot see your images in preview mode. Change this to an absolute path on the server. For example, if your blog URI is http example.com myblog, set it to myblog wp-content. You can use a folder completely outside the WordPress folder if you like. For example, you may have an existing images folder you wish to use. Whichever folder you choose, it will need to be writable by the web server.
Because you already have WordPress installed, your web server or your web hosting company has PHP on that server. You should have PHP installed on your local computer to develop plug-ins and themes for WordPress for one simple reason Your blog visitors should not be the guinea pigs while you test new looks and features. There's a small controversy in the WordPress community about the level of support for older versions of PHP. As of this writing, web servers with PHP V4.3 or later can run current versions of WordPress. Considering that v4.3 was released in late 2002, PHP vs.o came out in July 2004, and the current version 5.3 came out in June 2009, you might wonder why WordPress has not updated its system requirements. The problem for the WordPress team is that a substantial number of WordPress installations are apparently still running on servers with PHP4.X. At the 2009 WordCamp NYC in New York City, Mullenweg said that approximately 12 of all WordPress sites were still hosted with...
Caching works by saving frequently used pages, either to memory or to the hard drive. If you don't have a cache when a page is viewed, the web server has to read the PHP code and interpret it to build the page. For a WordPress MU site with BuddyPress and bbPress installed, that could mean several database queries need to be completed to put the page together. If a typical page shows a list of logged in users, recent comments, recent posts, popular blog posts, and the content of a blog post, then the database will need to be queried at least once for each of those things.
Web hosting services provide two very important things with your account Think of your Web host as a garage that you pay to park your car in. The garage gives you the place to store your car (disk space). It even gives you the driveway so that you, and others, can get to and from your car (bandwidth). It won't, however, fix your rockin' stereo system (WordPress or any other third-party software application) that you've installed unless you're willing to pay a few extra bucks for that service.
Domain registrars are certified and approved by the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN). Although hundreds of domain registrars exist today, the ones in the following list are popular because of their longevity in the industry, competitive pricing, and variety of services they offer in addition to domain name registration (such as Web hosting and Web site traffic builders)
There is no shortage of web hosting companies and domain name registrars on the Internet. Many new hosts appear each day, and at the dawn of each day, some hosts disappear. Web hosting companies have practically become a dime a dozen , but the advantage is that consumers have a broad choice when shopping for web hosting. The basic types of web hosting one can buy exist in a hierarchy. Ranging from least-to-most expensive, the hierarchy is Most of us start, and even stay, with shared hosting. No matter which type of hosting you choose, be sure to consider the variety of criteria involved when choosing a web host, such as how much space and bandwidth they offer, their policies on resource consumption and CPU time, whether or not they require you to commit to a minimum contract term, any setup fees, and their responsiveness to support tickets. A few popular web hosts include In conjunction with web hosting, you will also need to own a domain name. If you do not have one already, it's...
Up to this point, every technique that we have mentioned has been completely free. While it may be true that the best things in life are free (such as WordPress), it is an unfortunate fact that, at some point, you must spend money to make money. It's likely that you have already done so. For example, you own a domain name and pay for web hosting, don't you
Yes, data loss can (and does) happen on a daily basis. It is inevitable. However, we can prepare for it and should not relegate data backup as the sole responsibility of our web hosting provider. Most good web hosts do regularly back up their servers, but they are not immune to catastrophic hardware failures. No, backups are our responsibility. Imagine how much better you will sleep at night knowing that your entire business is not at risk of literally disappearing overnight
Drupal makes great efforts to allow you to run multiple sites from the same installation. Because each installation requires its own database, the number of sites you can run on some hosting plans would be limited by the number of databases the web hosting service allows you to make. Some hosting plans allow for only one database. How can people in this situation take advantage of Drupal's multisite configuration features Fortunately, there is a relatively simple solution. Through the use of table prefixes, you can load the tables for two or more Drupal sites into the same database and instruct each site which prefix to use, thus uniquely identifying the tables within a shared database.
In the rare occurrence that WordPress cannot connect to the MySQL database, rather than showing an ugly database error, site visitors get a friendlier error message and our developers receive an e-mail. This also informs the visitors that no further action is required on their part, besides checking back later, because the error occurred on the web hosting server and not on their side. This acknowledgment removes confusion and uncertainty on the visitor's side. The caveat to this is that when things go really wrong, beyond just a hiccup, the developers can get flooded with e-mails.
If you don't have a web host yet or have found that your existing web host can't quite handle WordPress MU, you can find recommendations for a good host on the WordPress MU forums. I use a UK-based web hosting company called 34SP (http www.34sp.com). Their prices are in GBP and their packages aren't quite as generous on data transfer storage as some of the deals offered by other hosts, but I have been with them for almost four years and have found their servers to be rock-solid stable and their tech support team is very knowledgeable and quick to respond.
With your web browser, log in to your web host's control panel. Your host may use cPanel, or Plesk, or a custom control panel. No matter the case, navigate to the database section. You may only see a MySQL logo, or maybe a link called Manage Databases as follows Some web hosts may automatically assign user privileges to the database. If your host requires that you manually assign user privileges, go ahead and do so now. The only database privileges required are select, insert, delete, update, create, drop, and alter, so try not to grant ALL privileges to that database user unless you do not have a choice. Once this process is finished, we will have an empty database in which to import our previous data.
This section introduces you to the basic elements of File Transfer Protocol (FTP). The ability to use FTP with your hosting account is a given for almost every Web host on the market today. FTP is the method you use to move files from one place to another for example, from your computer to your Web hosting account. This method is referred to as uploading. Earlier in this chapter, in Finding a Home for Your Blog, you find out how to obtain a Web hosting account. Your Web host gives you a username and password for your account, including an FTP IP address. (Usually, the FTP address is the same as your domain name, but check with your Web host, as addresses may vary.) It is this information the username, password, and FTP IP address that you insert into the FTP program to connect it to your hosting account.
Every Web host is different in how it gives you access to set up and manage your MySQL database(s) for your account. In this section, I use a popular hosting interface called cPanel. If your host provides a different interface, the same basic steps apply just the setup in the interface that your Web host provides may be different. 1. Log in to the administration interface with the username and password assigned to you by your Web host. Make absolutely sure that you note the database name, username, and password that you set up during this process. You will need them in the next section before officially installing WordPress on your Web server. Jot them down on a piece of paper, or copy and paste them into a texteditor window either way, just make sure that you have them immediately handy.
Once you've installed WordPress you can then concentrate on the installation of the WP Review Site plugin and its accompanying themes. First, extract the wpreviewsite.zip archive. Inside you will find a plugins folder and a themes folder. Within the plugins folder is another folder named review-site. Since none of these folders are zipped, you will need to upload them using either an FTP program or the file manager provided by your web host. So, upload the review-site folder to the wp-content plugins directory on your server. If you plan to use one of the themes provided with this plugin, then you will next need to upload the contents of the themes folder to the wp-content themes directory.
The plugins included with ClassiPress aren't in ZIP files, which means that to install them on your site, you will have to upload each of theme either via FTP or the file manager provided by your web host. Rather than going about things that way, you should, instead, just search for the plugins by name on the Install Plugins screen and then add them to your site from there. Not only is using this method easier, it also allows you to ensure that you're adding the latest version of each of these plugins to your site.
If you would like to use this feature, then you will first need to heed the advice included below the drop-down menu which advises you to contact your web host before enabling this setting. When you contact your web host you will need to ask them to if the mail() function is activated because the Success Mail feature won't work if that function isn't enabled. If the mail() function isn't enabled, then you should next ask your web host to activate it on your account. If they're unable to do so, then you will have no choice other than to set Success Mail to Disable. If it was possible for your web host to enable the mail() function, and you set Success Mail to Enabled, you must next deal with the Subject textbox. The default text provided in this textbox is certainly sufficient, but you might want to add the name of your job board to the subject line. That way recipients will be able to easily identify that the message that they're receiving isn't spam. The message within the Content...
Many webmasters have found that using lighttpd or nginx instead of Apache offers a performance boost. Also, tweaking the settings for MySQL and PHP may help you. If you need advice about how to do this, I would recommend contacting your web host. If you are interested in improving your web server's performance, you can find some good information at the following URLs
If you get the curl not enabled message when you click on suggest tags or you simply see no suggested tags appear, you will need to have your web host enable curl for you. Some web hosts disable lib-curl by default because of security concerns, but most are willing to enable it if requested to do so.
With the database out of the way, let's discuss some possible options for regularly creating copies of our files and folders on the server. Most web hosts provide a way in their control panel to archive and download all your site files in one fell swoop. If your host uses the popular cPanel option, look for the Backups icon
The secret to success with WordPress.org is getting the right host. The difficulty is that you need some time, effort, and luck to get this far. Even if you're ready and able to host the package yourself, you might still want to just say no to yourself and pay for hosting instead. WordPress hosts vary in how WordPress-friendly they are. Web hosts generally compete strongly on costs, which makes sense people doing an online search for a host find cost the easiest thing to focus on. All the other aspects are more or less subjective and require a lot of reading to even begin to evaluate. The difficulty here is that there's a chicken-and-egg problem with WordPress hosting. It will probably take you a couple of years of WordPressing to get to know people in the WordPress community,
Some web hosts offer a shared SSL option, which does not cost anything other than your regular monthly hosting fees. If you have a shared SSL certificate available (ask your host how to configure it), you could try the Admin SSL plugin for WordPress This plugin works with both shared and dedicated SSL.
Before doing anything else, you must first run a check on your server to see if mod_rewrite is enabled. The network-enabled version of WordPress needs mod_rewrite to function, so it's important to know early on what you're dealing with, so that you can either dive right in or deal with the problem before proceeding. Nearly all web hosts have mod_rewrite enabled, so this shouldn't be a problem, but you need to check just to be sure.
Finally, there is the possible strain on the server and database. Doing loop after loop means a lot of PHP and SQL queries and that will slow down the site. Simple is not always best, but keeping things as simple as possible while managing to get the required result is always a good idea. Both Web hosts and WordPress have come a long way since the early days, but that doesn't mean that you should make things more clunky or complicated than they need to be.
You have just restored a database backup. Hopefully, you will never need to do this on your live web site However, you may need to do this if an upgrade goes wrong or if your server crashes for some reason. If you ever need to move web hosts, perhaps because your site has become so popular that you have outgrown your original host, you could use this method to move the database to your new host.
You can run WordPress MU on most web servers. The developers recommend Apache or LiteSpeed, but it is possible to run WordPress MU on other servers such as Lighttpd or Nginx, although alternative web servers may require some tweaks that are beyond the scope of this book. The main requirements are
One option is to have a shared folder that both web servers can access. Most likely this would be an NFS Samba share on your third server, which serves as your MySQL server. A second option is to use rsync or a similar tool to coordinate uploads between the two servers and make sure each has the same assets in place. The second challenge is your dynamic data that is stored in the database. Assuming your database is not the bottleneck and the reason for load balancing, you could use a third server as your database server. Both web servers can then read and write from the same source. This can be a more secure deployment architecture when your database server is not directly addressable on the public Internet, but it also creates a potential single point of failure. Technically, you are only load balancing the front-end web servers in this situation.
So, again, what exactly is enterprise software In the most general terms, enterprise software solves a company-wide requirement or need rather than focusing on the necessities of a certain team or department. Often, enterprise software will integrate with other software pieces or business processes, such as a corporate authentication system or a standard for web servers. But frankly, what makes a software package enterprise-worthy depends on your actual enterprise requirements. Clearly, WordPress works for certain businesses, and will most likely work for yours. Following are some reasons why.
Because Automattic largely tends to the administration of WordPress.com, there are far fewer things that can go wrong than with self-hosted WordPress.org software. Therefore, this site has more information and support options. Because people can be a lot more creative with a WordPress.org installation, there are also more demonstrations of that creativity here.
Remember how we've said that the WordPress community as a whole tends to neglect hosted WordPress.com blogs in favor of WordPress.org blogs Not always, it seems. There's a site for WordPress.com Weblog Awards that highlights excellent work on the WordPress.com site. Visit http weblogawards.wordpress.com .
Another type of caching that is extremely useful in setups where more than one server is involved is Memcached. Unlike many systems, Memcached doesn't use file or database-style caching. Instead, it uses transient in-memory storage. Though it is entirely possible to use Memcached on a single server, it is most useful when shared among multiple web servers.
Visualization, 280 web server, 281-282 WP-Super Cache, 283 caching, 321-322 InnoDB, 321 ISAM tables, 321 MySQL database, 321 Calacanis, Jason, 3 Caoimh, Donncha O., 283, 292 CAPTCHA. See Completely Automated Public Turing test for telling Computers and Humans Apart Carson, Ryan, 256
When searching the Web for free themes outside the WordPress directory, be aware that not everyone on the Internet is a stand-up citizen and card-carrying member of the WordPress community. The vast majority of WordPress theme developers, no matter the experience level, are fans and friends of WordPress. You do have to watch out for that tiny minority, however. The popularity, open code, and ease of use in making WordPress themes are attractive to those who use the Web's powers for ill. With just a small bit of obfuscated code in an otherwise innocuous and beautiful theme, your web server could become part of a zombie army of machines participating in a Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attack on some other website, or be used in a phishing scheme to mine passwords and other personal information from your visitors unbeknownst to them or you.
Heads up This PHP code requires the standard ImageGD library to be installed with your PHP configuration. This library has been on most shared virtual hosting companies I've used however, to be safe, contact your website host administrator to ensure the ImageGD library is installed.
The URL is matched against existing files and directories in the WordPress installation. If the file is there, it is loaded by the web server. WordPress doesn't actually get involved in this decision it's up to your web server and the .htaccess file created by WordPress to decide if the URL is something handled by the web server or to be turned into a WordPress content query. This was covered in Chapter 4.
Permitting users to upload their avatar images to your server is by far the most convenient method for your users. In order for this option to work, you must make sure the upload directory you've specified (typically images avatars) is writable by the web server otherwise, your users will have problems uploading files. This option is less than desirable if your server is strapped for disk space. You can specify a hard limit on the size of files uploaded to your server under the Avatar Settings section in the Configuration page of the Administration panel.
Connect to your Web server via FTP, click the wp-content folder, and then click the themes folder. You find the default Twenty Ten theme files in the original WordPress files that you downloaded from the WordPress Web site (or installed directly from your Web server). Do not upload the index.php file, as you are about to create your own index.php file in the next section.
For checking and tracing purposes, the e-mail also includes the IP address of the visitor as reported by the web server, a reverse DNS lookup, and a link to a WHOIS lookup of that IP address. These three items should give you useful information if you are the victim of comment spam or some other comment nastiness. Unfortunately, some of the spammers post remotely from innocent machines or through third-party proxies, or else spoof the IP address, rendering those pieces of information less useful.
If you have a version of WordPress running that you can play with, great. If you don't, I highly recommend having a locally running installation. Installing and running a small web server on your local machine or laptop has become very easy with the release of WAMP (Windows, Apache, MySQL, and PHP) and MAMP (Mac, Apache, MySQL, and PHP). A local server offers you several conveniences compared to working with WordPress installed on a hosting provider. WAMP stands for Windows, Apache, MySQL, and PHP and it makes it very easy to have a local web server running on your computer in just a few clicks. If you're using a Windows operating system such as XP, Vista, or Windows 7, you can head over to http www.wampserver.com and download WAMP 2. Be sure to follow the directions in WAMP's installation wizard If you already have a web server running as localhost and or a previous version of WAMP installed, carefully read the wizard instructions for disabling or uninstalling that server, backing up...
If the theme that you would like to install isn't in a ZIP file, then you need to upload it to the wp-content themes directory on your server using either an FTP program or the file manager provided by your web host. After the theme has been uploaded, visit the Appearance Themes screen to activate your theme.
As was the case with themes, if the plugin that you want like to add to your site isn't in a ZIP file, then you need to go about things a bit differently. In this instance, you need to use either an FTP program, or the file manager provided by your web host, to upload the plugin's folder to the wp-content plugins directory on your server. Once the plugin has
The wildcard subdomains feature is a nice one, but it's not much of a use if our web server doesn't know what to do with it. So, we've got one more thing to do. We can then get on with installing WordPress MU, I promise We've just set up a new virtual host in Apache. Virtual hosts are used so that you can run more than one site on a single web server. They can be used to host multiple domains, or in this case, subdomains. The VirtualHosts file tells Apache to accept connections from people looking for anysite.slayercafe.com and directs them to the folder where the main slayercafe.com site is stored. Apache reads the http_host header and passes that information to WordPress MU, which then serves up the correct site. If you're not using cPanel and are having difficulty with any of the steps listed so far, I'd recommend you look at the documentation provided by your web host. If you choose one of the hosts mentioned in Chapter 1, then WordPress MU should run well and features such as...
There are lots of free web server packages available. I recommend WAMP (http www. wampserver.com en ) for Windows and MAMP (http www.mamp.info ) for Mac users. Both of these packages provide Apache, MySQL, and PHP the AMP part of the acronyms WAMP and MAMP. The W stands for Windows and M for Mac. If you're on Linux, then there should be a LAMP package available for your distribution. One option is XAMPP (the final P stands for Perl), which you should be able to install through your distribution's package manager. XAMPP is also available for other platforms. This book assumes you are using Windows, so the following instructions are for the WAMP package Congratulations You now have a web server running on your local machine. The server name stands for Windows (or Linux Mac), Apache (the web server), MySQL (the database server), and PHP (the scripting language that WordPress MU uses). The rewrite module is also known as mod_rewrite. We had to enable this because WordPress MU uses it to...
A Web host You need to have Web-hosting space before you can install WordPress. Picking a hosting company is a topic that could be a book in and of itself. But here are a few things to look for in a host, because your host has to have them for you to run WordPress When your Web hosting is all set, you need to make sure that you have the necessary tools on your local machine to set up WordPress. Here's the list The lull's stable release oi WordPress Version 2.6.2) is uvuiU-blc 111 two formats from the links toynnr right. IF you have nn idea wh.it tndo with this download, we recommend signing up with one of our web hosting partners thul oilers 1 one click install oi WordPress or getting a free account on WordPress.com.
If you get this error, the first thing you should check is the contents of your wpmu-config.php file. Make sure that the username and password provided are correct. Also, check that the server's hostname is correct. In most cases, it should say localhost , but some web hosts such as GoDaddy do use remote MySQL servers. If those details are all correct, check that you can connect to the database using phpMyAdmin. If you aren't using a VPS or dedicated server, contact your web host to ask if they are aware of a problem on your server.
The WordPress application files can be downloaded for free if you want to do a manual installation. If you've got a website host, this process is extremely easy and requires no previous programming skills or advanced blog user experience. It's a simple ready-set-go blogging engine, where you can easily start even if you are blogging for the first time. Some web hosts even offer automatic installation through the host's online control panel. However, be a little wary of this because some hosts offer automatic installation, but they do it in a way that makes updating your WordPress difficult or awkward. As far as web servers go, Apache is the best. But WordPress will also run on a server running the Microsoft server (though you won't be able to use permalinks). If you want to use permalinks, your server must be Unix and Apache's mod_rewrite option must be enabled. Apache's mod_rewrite is enabled by default in most web hosting accounts. If you are hosting your own account, you can enable...
Lucene Lucene is an open source product released by the Apache Foundation. The same company that brought us the insanely popular Apache web server that your blog most likely runs on. Lucene is the undisputed heavyweight in open source searching. With its unique searching and indexing algorithms, Lucene will absolutely deliver the search goods.
If you do have a test server set up, try adding your new plug-in to the setup. Run all the existing plug-ins one at a time for standard operation, and then change a setting or two to check for unwanted effects. If the plug-in passes, go ahead and upload the plug-in to the production server at your web host. Before installing any plug-in (including updates to WordPress core and individual plug-ins) on your web server, back up the WordPress database to another computer. You don't want to enhance the functionality of your blog only to lose your data in the process Consider adding the WP Database Backup plug-in as one of your first installations. See the Administration part of the Some 'Essential' Plugins section later in the chapter.
After you set the format for the permalinks for your site by using any options other than the default, WordPress writes specific rules, or directives, to the .htaccess file on your Web sever. The .htaccess file in turn communicates to your Web server how it should serve up the permalinks, according to the permalink structure you've chosen to use. Does your Web server configuration use and give you access to the .htaccess file Does your Web server run Apache with the mod_rewrite module 1. Using a plain-text editor (such as Notepad for Windows or TextEdit for a Mac), create a blank file name it htaccess.txt and upload it to your Web server via FTP. (See Chapter 6 for more information about FTP.) When the file is on your Web server, rename the file .htaccess (notice the period at the beginning), and make sure that it is writable by the server by changing permissions to either 755 or 777. (See Chapter 6 for information on changing permissions on server files.) If .htaccess already exists,...